Joseph DeJames (plaintiff) sustained injuries while working on a ship in New Jersey. The ship was chartered by Magnificence Carriers, Inc. and had been defectively converted into an automobile carrier in Japan by Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Ltd. (defendants). DeJames sued the defendants in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey under 28 U.S.C. § 1333 to recover damages for his injuries. Hitachi was served with process in Japan pursuant to New Jersey’s long-arm statute. Hitachi moved to dismiss the complaint for lack of personal jurisdiction because it did not have sufficient contacts with the State of New Jersey. In response, DeJames argued that Hitachi’s contacts with the entire United States could be aggregated because DeJames brought this action under 28 U.S.C. § 1333 in federal court.