The United States (government) (defendant) charged Black with raping Doe (plaintiff). Under Federal Rule of Evidence 412, Black filed a pretrial motion to admit evidence of Doe's reputation for sexual promiscuity and evidence of certain nonsexual behavior on which that reputation may have been based. The motion also covered records of telephone conversations between Black and Doe. Black argued the evidence would show that he reasonably believed Doe consented to have sex and that Doe actually gave that consent. Black also argued the evidence would corroborate Black's testimony. After hearing the evidence, the trial judge granted Black's motion. Doe contested the judge's ruling and brought a civil suit against the government to seal records of the Rule 412 hearing. The trial judge affirmed the Rule 412 ruling. The judge also granted summary judgment for the government on Doe's civil suit. Doe appealed both judgments to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.