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Dudum v. Arntz
United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
640 F.3d 1098 (9th Cir. 2011)
San Francisco sought to improve upon the electoral system it employed in some municipal elections. Originally, San Francisco implemented a runoff election system. This system's flaws included the prevalence of strategic voting and wasted ballots. To resolve these issues, San Francisco amended its city charter. Thus, a restricted instant-runoff voting (IRV) system supplanted the prior runoff election system. Under this system, voters could select a maximum of three candidates in a single round of voting. Voters would rank these selections from most to least favorable. A series of tabulations would follow, resulting in the removal of inadequate candidates. This process would persist until the candidate with a majority of votes remained. Dudum (plaintiff) brought suit, alleging that this impinged on equal protection. Dudum appealed from the district court's ruling, which favored San Francisco's IRV system.
Rule of Law
Holding and Reasoning (Berzon, J.)
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