Ericsson, Inc. (plaintiff) brought suit against D-Link Systems, Inc. (defendant), alleging infringement of multiple standard-essential patents. Ericsson had promised to offer licenses for all of the relevant patents at a reasonable and non-discriminatory rate. The parties agreed that this commitment was binding on Ericsson. At trial, the jury found that D-Link did infringe on the patents and assigned roughly $10 million in damages—approximately 15 cents per infringing device. After post-trial motions, the trial court upheld the jury's infringement and validity findings and refused to grant a new trial based on allegedly deficient jury instructions regarding Ericsson's reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing obligations. D-Link appealed, arguing that the jury should have been instructed on the concepts of patent hold-up and royalty stacking, because the jury should know the problems that may arise if royalty rates are set too high. The appeal was brought before the Federal Circuit.