Eze and one or more other persons (plaintiffs), all citizens of Nigeria, were injured while riding in a cab owned by the Yellow Cab Co. of Alexandria, Virginia, Inc. (Yellow Cab) (defendant) and driven by Godwin Sam Akakpo (defendant). The plaintiffs sued the defendants for personal injury in federal district court, alleging diversity of citizenship as the basis for jurisdiction. The plaintiffs’ complaint did not specify Akakpo’s citizenship. On that basis, Yellow Cab moved to dismiss the complaint. The plaintiffs did not respond to Yellow Cab’s motion or request an extension of time. The court dismissed the complaint. The plaintiffs appealed. At oral argument on appeal, the plaintiffs acknowledged that Akakpo was a citizen of Ghana.