Richard Ceballos (plaintiff), a deputy district attorney for the Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office, believed an affidavit used to obtain a critical search warrant contained severe inaccuracies, and contacted the warrant affiant, a Los Angeles deputy sheriff, about the reasons for the inaccuracies. Ceballos was unsatisfied with the deputy sheriff’s answers, and relayed his findings to his supervisors. Ceballos recommended that the case be dismissed. His supervisors decided to proceed with the prosecution, however, and Ceballos was called by the defense to testify about the inaccuracies in the affidavit. After his testimony, Ceballos claims that he was subjected to several retaliatory employment actions. Ceballos brought suit in federal district court against Garcetti (defendant), the Los Angeles County District Attorney, on the grounds that the First Amendment protected his testimony. The district court ruled that Garcetti was protected by qualified immunity, but the court of appeals reversed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.