An Alabama law redrew the boundaries of the City of Tuskegee. Charles Gomillion (plaintiff), a Tuskegee resident until the boundary change, sued Tuskegee Mayor Phil Lightfoot and other city and county officials (defendants). Gomillion argued that the statute was unconstitutional. Lightfoot asserted that the court had no authority to review a state's decision to draw or change municipal boundaries. Lightfoot also argued that state laws governing legislative districts were not subject to judicial review. The district court dismissed the complaint. The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.