Agee (plaintiff) worked for the United States Central Intelligence Agency between 1957 and 1968. Agee immigrated to West Germany. Agee publicly announced his intent to oppose international CIA operations. Agee published a book and disclosed the identities of CIA operatives through a series of articles and press conferences. After Agee’s disclosures led to attacks on CIA operatives, the United States Secretary of State, Haig (defendant), revoked Agee’s passport. Agee filed suit in federal district court alleging that the revocation exceeded the scope of the Secretary’s congressionally delegated authority and that the revocation violated various constitutional rights. Agee moved for summary judgment. The district court concluded that the regulation relied upon by the Secretary as grounds for revoking Agee’s passport exceeded the scope of congressionally delegated authority. The court of appeals upheld the district court decision. The Secretary petitioned the United States Supreme Court for review.