Holloway (defendant) and his accomplice committed three carjackings by going up to the driver of the respective car with a gun and threatening to shoot unless the driver gave up the car. Holloway never used the gun, but did punch one victim in the face. Holloway was charged with the federal crime of carjacking “with the intent to cause death or serious bodily harm.” At trial, the judge instructed the jury to convict Holloway of the crime if he had the intent to “cause death or serious bodily harm” to the driver if they had refused to give him their cars. The jury convicted Holloway of all three counts of federal carjacking. Holloway appealed to the court of appeals, which affirmed his conviction. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.