Rahinah Ibrahim (plaintiff), a citizen of Malaysia and a student at Stanford University, was wrongly placed on several federal watch lists, on the no-fly list, and in the Interagency Border Information System (IBIS) due to a misunderstanding by a federal agent regarding the applicable form. After attempting to fly from San Francisco to Hawaii, Ibrahim was detained and led away in handcuffs, questioned, and later released. Subsequently, while Ibrahim was in Malaysia visiting her family, her student visa was revoked. Ibrahim was unable to return to the United States. Ibrahim filed suit in federal district court against the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other federal agencies (defendants), alleging federal violations of 42 U.S.C. § 1983, state tort-law claims, and several constitutional claims. The defendants conceded that Ibrahim did not pose a threat of terrorism or a threat to national security.