Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, D.C., the National Security Agency (NSA) began a bulk collection of telephone metadata from all domestic telephone calls, including the caller’s and recipient’s numbers; the date, time, and duration of the call; limited location information; and calling-card numbers. The metadata did not include the content of the telephone calls. The NSA received authority for the bulk-collection program from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) pursuant to § 501 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), 50 U.S.C. § 1801 et seq., as amended by § 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act. Thereafter, the bulk-collection program was renewed several times. However, in 2015, Congress passed the USA FREEDOM Act (Act), which expressly discontinued the bulk-collection program 180 days after the date of enactment. The NSA filed an application with the FISC to continue the bulk-collection program for the 180-day period prior to the operation of the Act. The Center for National Security Studies and others filed a motion opposing the reauthorization of the program.