R.M.J. (defendant), a lawyer admitted to practice in Missouri and Illinois, opened an office in Missouri. R.M.J. mailed an announcement card to a wide audience and advertised his office in the newspaper and telephone book. The advertisements stated that R.M.J. was licensed in Missouri and Illinois and was “Admitted to Practice Before THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT.” The advertisements also listed practice areas, such as real estate, which were not included in the list of 23 enumerated practice areas permitted to be advertised in Missouri. The Advisory Committee of the Missouri Bar (Committee) charged R.M.J. with unprofessional conduct. R.M.J. argued that the advertising restrictions under the Supreme Court of Missouri’s Rule 4 were unconstitutional. The state supreme court upheld the constitutionality of Rule 4 and issued a private remand. R.M.J. appealed directly to the United States Supreme Court.