The State of Kansas (plaintiff) filed suit against the United States (defendant), seeking declaratory and injunctive relief following changes made by Congress to the federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). These changes required state programs for child-support enforcement, also known as IV-D programs, to meet certain federally mandated standards before states could receive block grants for the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program, a welfare program under which the state received federal money to then distribute to the state’s needy families. Kansas argued that the IV-D program’s requirements were too onerous and expensive to operationalize, required too much manpower, and encroached upon the state’s ability to determine its own laws. The district court granted the federal government’s motion to dismiss the complaint for failure to state a claim. Kansas appealed.