In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (CRA). Title II of the CRA forbids racial discrimination by places of public accommodation such as hotels and restaurants. The McClungs (plaintiffs) owned and operated Ollie’s Barbecue in Birmingham, Alabama and refused to serve African American customers in their dining area. Approximately half of the food served by the restaurant moved in interstate commerce. The McClungs sued Katzenbach (defendant), the United States government actor responsible for enforcing the CRA, to enjoin the CRA's enforcement against the McClungs. The action was brought in federal district court. A three-judge panel of the district court issued an injunction preventing enforcement of the CRA against the McClungs. The United States government appealed the injunction directly to the United States Supreme Court. The Court decided this case along with Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964).