United States Supreme Court
323 U.S. 214 (1944)
On May 9, 1942 under Civilian Restrictive Order No. 1, based on Executive Order 9066, Japanese-Americans were ordered to move to relocation camps in light of the United States’ involvement in World War II. Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34 specifically excluded Japanese Americans from remaining in San Leandro, California, a region designated as a “Military Area.” Korematsu (defendant) was an American citizen of Japanese descent who was convicted by the United States Government (plaintiff), in federal district court for violating Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34. No questions were raised as to Korematsu’s loyalty to the United States. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the conviction, and the United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.
Rule of Law
Holding and Reasoning (Black, J.)
Concurrence (Frankfurter, J.)
Dissent (Roberts, J.)
Dissent (Murphy, J.)
Dissent (Jackson, J.)
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