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Kramer v. Union Free School District

United States Supreme Court
395 U.S. 621 (1969)



Section 2012 of the New York Education Law provided that in certain New York school districts, residents who were otherwise eligible to vote in state and federal elections could vote in the school-district election only if they (1) owned or leased taxable property within the district or (2) were parents or had custody of children enrolled in the local public schools. Morris Kramer (plaintiff), a childless man who did not own or lease taxable real property, filed suit against Union Free School District (UFSD) (defendant) in federal district court on the grounds that § 2012 denied him equal protection of the laws in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. After a three-judge panel of the district court upheld § 2012 as constitutional and dismissed Kramer's complaint, Kramer filed a direct appeal to the United States Supreme Court.

Rule of Law


Holding and Reasoning (Warren, C.J.)

Dissent (Stewart, J.)

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