From our private database of 14,100+ case briefs...
Lerohl v. Friends of Minnesota Sinfonia
United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
322 F.3d 486 (8th Cir. 2003)
Tricia Lerohl and Shelley Hanson (plaintiffs) were regular members of the Sinfonia, a group created by former members of the Minneapolis Chamber Symphony Orchestra to provide free classical concerts for inner-city youth. Under the auspices of the nonprofit Friends of the Minnesota Sinfonia (the nonprofit) (defendant), Jay Fishman acted as Sinfonia’s executive and artistic director. Fishman scheduled concert series, managed a list of eligible musicians, and sent out mailings to those musicians, who then decided whether or not to participate in a particular concert. Eligible musicians could decline any offer and could opt out of any commitment to play, provided they secured an eligible substitute. Sinfonia players, and Fishman as conductor, were paid a per-concert flat fee that was set by the local musicians’ union, of which all Sinfonia players were members. Fishman was also paid as an employee of the nonprofit for his work as Sinfonia’s director. Lerohl and Hanson were regular Sinfonia performers from 1990–1999. In 1999, Fishman stopped offering concert opportunities to them. Lerohl sued under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq., alleging she was terminated in retaliation for a sexual harassment claim she had made against Fishman. Hanson sued under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq., alleging she was terminated after being unable to perform for several months while recovering from injuries sustained at a Sinfonia rehearsal. The district court entered summary judgment on both complaints, based on its conclusion that the statutes did not apply, because the plaintiffs were independent contractors rather than Sinfonia employees. The plaintiffs appealed.
Rule of Law
Holding and Reasoning (Loken, J.)
What to do next…
Unlock this case brief with a free (no-commitment) trial membership of Quimbee.
You’ll be in good company: Quimbee is one of the most widely used and trusted sites for law students, serving more than 97,000 law students since 2011. Some law schools—such as Yale, Vanderbilt, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois—even subscribe directly to Quimbee for all their law students. Read our student testimonials.
Learn more about Quimbee’s unique (and proven) approach to achieving great grades at law school.
Quimbee is a company hell-bent on one thing: helping you get an “A” in every course you take in law school, so you can graduate at the top of your class and get a high-paying law job. We’re not just a study aid for law students; we’re the study aid for law students. Read more about Quimbee.
Here's why 220,000 law students have relied on our case briefs:
- Written by law professors and practitioners, not other law students. 14,100 briefs, keyed to 189 casebooks. Top-notch customer support.
- The right amount of information, includes the facts, issues, rule of law, holding and reasoning, and any concurrences and dissents.
- Access in your classes, works on your mobile and tablet. Massive library of related video lessons and high quality multiple-choice questions.
- Easy to use, uniform format for every case brief. Written in plain English, not in legalese. Our briefs summarize and simplify; they don’t just repeat the court’s language.