Quimbee logo
DMCA.com Protection Status
From our private database of 18,400+ case briefs...

Les v. Reilly

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
968 F.2d 985 (9th Cir. 1992)


In 1988, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discovered four pesticides to be carcinogens. The Delaney clause of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 21 U.S.C. § 348(c)(3), prohibited the use of pesticides found to induce cancer as food additives. However, EPA regulations permitted the use of these four pesticides as food additives. Kathleen Les and several other individuals (plaintiffs) asked the EPA to revoke these regulations. However, the EPA refused to do so, reasoning that the cancer risk from the four pesticides was de minimis. The EPA issued a final order declining to revoke the regulations. The plaintiffs petitioned for review in the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. The EPA relied on a scientific study to argue for a de minimis exception to the Delaney clause that would permit a more reasonable and realistic approach to minimizing the public’s exposure to cancer-causing additives.

Rule of Law


Holding and Reasoning (Douglas, J.)

What to do next…

  1. Unlock this case brief with a free (no-commitment) trial membership of Quimbee.

    You’ll be in good company: Quimbee is one of the most widely used and trusted sites for law students, serving more than 496,000 law students since 2011. Some law schools—such as Yale, Vanderbilt, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois—even subscribe directly to Quimbee for all their law students. Read our student testimonials.

  2. Learn more about Quimbee’s unique (and proven) approach to achieving great grades at law school.

    Quimbee is a company hell-bent on one thing: helping you get an “A” in every course you take in law school, so you can graduate at the top of your class and get a high-paying law job. We’re not just a study aid for law students; we’re the study aid for law students. Read more about Quimbee.

Here's why 496,000 law students have relied on our case briefs:

  • Written by law professors and practitioners, not other law students. 18,400 briefs, keyed to 985 casebooks. Top-notch customer support.
  • The right amount of information, includes the facts, issues, rule of law, holding and reasoning, and any concurrences and dissents.
  • Access in your classes, works on your mobile and tablet. Massive library of related video lessons and high quality multiple-choice questions.
  • Easy to use, uniform format for every case brief. Written in plain English, not in legalese. Our briefs summarize and simplify; they don’t just repeat the court’s language.

Questions & Answers

Have a question about this case?

Sign up for a free 7-day trial and ask it

Sign up for a FREE 7-day trial