Marcel Lutwak, Munio Knoll, Leopold Knoll, Regina Treitler, and Grace Klemtner (defendants) were charged in federal district court with conspiracy to defraud the United States’ immigration laws by obtaining the illegal entry into the country of three alien spouses of honorably discharged veterans of the Armed Forces. All charges against Klemtner were dismissed prior to trial. At trial, the evidence showed that Lutwak and Treitler sought to secure passage for Munio and Leopold from France to the United States. Lutwak and Treitler paid Klemtner and another woman, who were honorably discharged veterans of World War II, to marry Munio and Leopold in France solely to secure passage into the United States. Pursuant to the War Brides Act, alien spouses of honorably discharged veterans were permitted to enter the United States. The court found that the marriages were never intended to be valid and instead were entered into only to allow the alien spouses to gain entry into the United States. The jury convicted Treitler, Munio, and Lutwak and acquitted Leopold. The defendants appealed. The court of appeals affirmed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari to review.