An Ohio statute provided that any pamphlets or writings intended to influence voters in any election, including state referendums, were required to include the name and address of the person distributing the pamphlet or writing. Margaret McIntyre (defendant) distributed a pamphlet near a public meeting where school superintendents were discussing an upcoming referendum on a proposed school tax. The pamphlets included McIntyre’s opinion on and opposition to the new tax. The Ohio Elections Commission (OEC) (defendant) fined McIntyre for violating the statute, as the pamphlets did not include McIntyre’s name or address. The Franklin County Court of Common Pleas reversed the fine. Subsequently, the Court of Appeals of Ohio reinstated the fine, and the Supreme Court of Ohio affirmed. McIntyre appealed.