Joseph McKeiver, age 16, was adjudicated as a juvenile delinquent after being charged with robbery, larceny, and receiving stolen goods, felonies under Pennsylvania law. Another boy, age 15, was charged with acts of juvenile delinquency including assault and battery and conspiracy. In each proceeding, counsel’s request for trial by jury was denied. The decisions were affirmed by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. In North Carolina, juveniles ranging from 11 to 15 years of age had been declared delinquent by the juvenile court after their requests for trial by jury had been denied. The North Carolina Supreme Court had affirmed those decisions as well. The U.S. Supreme Court granted certiorari and consolidated the cases to decide whether there is a right by the Due Process Clause to trial by jury in a juvenile court proceeding.