The National Forest Management Act of 1976 requires the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) to develop, maintain, and revise land and resource management plans for units of the National Forest Service (NFS). The NFS developed a plan for the Wayne National Forest, which is located in Ohio. Under the Plan, certain amounts of logging and clearcutting were permitted, though the Plan itself did not authorize the cutting of trees. Before logging could occur under the Plan, the NFS was required to take a number of steps, such as ensuring that the project was consistent with the Plan and that those affected by the proposed logging had notice and an opportunity to be heard. The Sierra Club (plaintiff) challenged the lawfulness of the Plan in federal court, suing the NFS, the Secretary, the Regional Forester, and the Forest Supervisor (defendants). In its suit, the Sierra Club argued that the Plan improperly allowed for too much logging and clearcutting. The Ohio Forestry Association (defendant), members of which harvest timber in or process wood products from the Wayne National Forest, intervened as a defendant. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.