The State of Michigan (plaintiff) charged Alvin D. Carter (defendant) with aiding and abetting unarmed robbery, aiding and abetting extortion, and conspiracy to commit both unarmed robbery and extortion. Edward Kimble robbed a business by handing an employee a threatening note and demanding money. At Carter's trial, Kimble testified that he and Carter met at a bar the day before the robbery to discuss the plans and to write the note. The jury found Carter guilty of all charges, and Carter appealed. The appellate court affirmed the jury's ruling on some of the charges but reversed the other charges. Carter appealed to the Supreme Court of Michigan.