The State of Michigan (plaintiff) separately prosecuted Lundy (defendant in the first case) and Langworthy (defendant in the second case) for first-degree criminal sexual conduct and second-degree murder, respectively. Each man faced a bench trial. Michigan courts historically considered both offenses to be general-intent crimes. Both Lundy and Langworthy argued that each offense should be treated as a specific-intent crime, for which he should not be convicted because he was voluntarily intoxicated when he committed the offense. The judge in Lundy's case convicted him. The judge in Langworthy's case found that Langworthy acted with the specific intent to kill his victim, but that because of Langworthy's intoxication, he had no real concept of the consequences of his action, and therefore was guilty only of second-degree murder. Both Lundy and Langworthy appealed. The Michigan Court of Appeals affirmed the convictions. Lundy and Langworthy appealed to the Michigan Supreme Court.