Keva Richardson and Ann McGregor (plaintiffs) were in a car stopped at a traffic light when a semi-trailer driven by Chapman (defendant) negligently crashed into them. As a result of the crash, Richardson could no longer use her legs, she had limited function in her arms, she suffered from pain in her legs and shoulders, her chest and abdomen were paralyzed, she had significant facial injuries, she had no control over her bladder or bowel functions, and she contracted restrictive pulmonary disease. Richardson’s economist, Professor Linke, testified that Richardson’s future medical expenses had a maximum of $9,570,034. McGregor on the other hand suffered only a laceration on her forehead that left a small scar. The jury awarded Richardson $22,358,814, including $11,000,000 for future medical expenses, and McGregor $102,215. McGregor’s award was comprised mainly of $100,000 for pain and suffering. The appellate court rejected Chapman’s challenge to the amount of damages. Chapman appealed.