The United States Jaycees (USJ) (plaintiff), a social organization, only permitted young males to become regular members. Women and older men could become associate members with limited benefits. Contrary to this rule, however, two local chapters of the organization admitted women as full regular members. The USJ revoked their organizational charters. In response, leaders of the local chapters alleged that the organization’s policy of excluding women violated the Minnesota Human Rights Act (MHRA), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in a “place of public accommodation.” USJ brought suit in federal court against Katherine Roberts, the state official charged with enforcing the MHRA, on the grounds that the MHRA violated USJ’s right of free association under the First Amendment. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit held that the MHRA violated the First and Fourteenth Amendments, and Roberts appealed to the United States Supreme Court.