Michael and Chantell Sackett (plaintiffs) filed suit in federal district court against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (defendant) under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 5 U.S.C. § 706(2)(A), seeking declaratory and injunctive relief to prevent enforcement of an EPA-issued Compliance Order (the Order). The Order asserted that the Sacketts placed fill material on their 2/3-acre vacant lot without a permit and in violation of the Clean Water Act (CWA), as the Sacketts’ lot was located adjacent to a large lake. The Order directed the Sacketts to restore the site in accordance with an EPA-created Restoration Work Plan. If the Sacketts refused or failed to comply, civil monetary penalties up to $75,000 per day could be assessed. The district court dismissed the Sacketts’ claims and the order was affirmed by the court of appeals. The U.S. Supreme Court granted certiorari to review.