North Carolina sought to redraw the lines of its voting districts. The United States Department of Justice rejected North Carolina’s first redistricting plan, which included one black-majority district, for lacking sufficient minority voter representation as mandated by the Voting Rights Act. North Carolina then submitted a new redistricting plan, which contained a second black-majority district. In light of this redistricting plan, five North Carolinians sued state officials on equal-protection grounds. The United States Supreme Court recognized a valid equal-protection claim and remanded for trial. The lower court upheld the redistricting plan. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.