Arkansas passed Act 10, a statute which required every teacher, as a condition of employment in a public school or university, to file annually an affidavit listing every organization to which he or she belonged in the past five years. Shelton (plaintiff), a long-term teacher in the Little Rock school system, refused to file an affidavit because he did not want his membership in the NAACP to be disclosed. His contract was not renewed. Shelton filed suit against Tucker (defendant) on the ground that Act 10 violated his First Amendment right to freedom of association. The trial court upheld the constitutionality of Act 10, and Shelton appealed to the United States Supreme Court.