James and Virginia Boyd (the Boyds) (defendants) listed their home for sale with real estate broker Joan Carter (Carter). The Boyds had used Carter in prior real estate sales, for which they received written purchase offers. The Smiths (plaintiffs) made an offer to purchase the property, after detailed discussions regarding, for example, the disposition of the draperies. After the discussions, Carter filled in the blanks on a standard purchase agreement, putting the terms of the discussion in writing. On the same day, Philip and Patricia Durigan (the Durigans) (defendant-interveners) made a written offer to purchase the property. The Boyds accepted the Durigans’ offer, and the Smiths filed an action against the Boyds for specific performance. The trial court found in favor of the Smiths, and the Boyds appealed.