Kent Steffes (plaintiff) attended Brentwood School for his freshman and sophomore high-school years. During his sophomore year, Steffes participated in varsity basketball and volleyball. Steffes’s parents decided to transfer him to Pali High at the end of his sophomore year. Pali High was the public school for the area where his parents’ home was located. The California Interscholastic Federation (CIF) (defendant) is a statewide organization that enacts and enforces rules and regulations for high-school interscholastic athletics. CIF Rule 214 renders a student who transfers schools without a change of address ineligible for varsity athletics for one year. This rule was designed to minimize athletic recruiting and school shopping. Based on this rule, Steffes was deemed ineligible for varsity sports for his junior year. Steffes requested a waiver and stated that he had not been influenced to transfer from recruitment efforts. Steffes’s request for a waiver was denied. Steffes then sued the CIF, requesting an injunction to prevent CIF from enforcing Rule 214. The trial court denied a preliminary injunction, and Steffes appealed to the California Court of Appeals.