The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) set forth procedures for the registration of pesticides. FIFRA required companies registering pesticides to submit data to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in support of their registrations. FIFRA provided compensation for the EPA’s use of data submitted by such companies, and required the amount of compensation be set by binding arbitration. Thirteen large firms in the business of developing and marketing chemicals used in pesticides (chemical firms) (plaintiffs) brought suit against the United States (defendant) in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York challenging the constitutionality of FIFRA. The chemical firms argued the requirement of binding arbitration violated Article III of the Constitution, which vested judicial power in Article III courts. The District Court found in favor of the chemical firms. Thomas appealed.