Octavio Thomas (plaintiff) was playing in a soccer game sponsored by the Cosmopolitan Soccer League and the United States Soccer Federation, Inc. (defendants). During the game, Thomas was suddenly attacked by an opposing player and fans that had run onto the field. Thomas brought suit against the defendants, alleging that they had negligently failed to provide proper security and a well-trained referee. There was no prior history of animosity between the teams. The defendants filed a motion for summary judgment. The Supreme Court of New York denied the defendants’ motion, and they appealed.