Trinity Industries (Trinity) (plaintiff) manufactures tanks and pressure vessels in its Sharonville, Ohio plant. A Trinity employee at the plant filed a formal complaint with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) alleging a number of safety hazards. Trinity refused to grant OSHA permission to inspect its facility. OSHA sought an administrative inspection warrant from a federal magistrate judge, arguing that the Trinity employee’s complaint met the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (Act) and that the Act required a special inspection in this instance. Trinity ultimately agreed to allow OSHA to view its safety and health records. Based on its review of these records, OSHA calculated a lost workday injury rate of 13.6. OSHA safety specialists and industrial hygienists then inspected the Sharonville facility, and recommended the issuance of one set of health citations and one set of safety citations. OSHA issued five citations alleging numerous violations of the Act, all of which Trinity contested. The matter came before a federal appellate court.