Section 5(b) of the Food Stamp Act of 1964 (Act), 7 U.S.C. § 2011 et seq., was enacted by Congress to address the concern that college students with wealthy parents were abusing the food-stamp program. Section 5(b) provided for the denial of food-stamp benefits to an entire household for two years if the household included individuals aged 18 years or older who were claimed as dependents by ineligible taxpayers residing elsewhere. Section 5(b) created a presumption that a household containing an individual claimed elsewhere as a tax dependent was not needy and had access to adequate nutrition. Murry and other individuals who were living in households denied benefits under § 5(b) (plaintiffs) brought a class-action suit against the United States Department of Agriculture (Department) (defendant), arguing that § 5(b) violated due process. The district court ruled for the plaintiffs. The Department appealed.