Quimbee logo
DMCA.com Protection Status
From our private database of 19,800+ case briefs...

United States v. Bray

United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
139 F.3d 1104 (1998)


Facts

James Bray (defendant) and Robert Owczarzak (defendant) were post-office window clerks who embezzled money from the post office by stealing cash used to pay for stamps. Window clerks were required to record their cash and stamp inventory daily on a form, and a post-office supervisor conducted a regular audit of each window clerk to reconcile the cash and stamp inventory with the data recorded on the daily forms. To prevent the audit from uncovering their theft, Bray and Owczarzak would trade stamp inventory so that each of them would have stamp inventory that corresponded with the forms. During Bray’s trial, the prosecution presented exhibits of charts containing summaries of the data on the forms from the two years when Bray and Owczarzak were embezzling, as well as charts of summaries of the form data from after Bray and Owczarzak had been caught and new employees were working as the window clerks for comparison. The forms themselves were not admitted into evidence. Bray objected to the admission of the exhibits into evidence, arguing that the forms themselves should have been admitted into evidence and that the jury should have been instructed that the charts themselves were not evidence. Following his conviction, Bray appealed on that basis.

Rule of Law

Issue

Holding and Reasoning (Ryan, J.)

What to do next…

  1. Unlock this case brief with a free (no-commitment) trial membership of Quimbee.

    You’ll be in good company: Quimbee is one of the most widely used and trusted sites for law students, serving more than 510,000 law students since 2011. Some law schools—such as Yale, Vanderbilt, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois—even subscribe directly to Quimbee for all their law students. Read our student testimonials.

  2. Learn more about Quimbee’s unique (and proven) approach to achieving great grades at law school.

    Quimbee is a company hell-bent on one thing: helping you get an “A” in every course you take in law school, so you can graduate at the top of your class and get a high-paying law job. We’re not just a study aid for law students; we’re the study aid for law students. Read more about Quimbee.

Here's why 510,000 law students have relied on our case briefs:

  • Written by law professors and practitioners, not other law students. 19,800 briefs, keyed to 985 casebooks. Top-notch customer support.
  • The right amount of information, includes the facts, issues, rule of law, holding and reasoning, and any concurrences and dissents.
  • Access in your classes, works on your mobile and tablet. Massive library of related video lessons and high quality multiple-choice questions.
  • Easy to use, uniform format for every case brief. Written in plain English, not in legalese. Our briefs summarize and simplify; they don’t just repeat the court’s language.

Questions & Answers


Have a question about this case?

Sign up for a free 7-day trial and ask it

Sign up for a FREE 7-day trial