In 1923, Congress passed the Filled Milk Act (FMA), which criminalized the shipment in interstate commerce of skimmed milk compounded with any fat or oil other than milk fat, so as to resemble milk or cream. Carolene Products Co. (defendant) owned a milk processing plant. The United States government (plaintiff) indicted Carolene Products in district court for violating the FMA. Carolene was accused of shipping a product called “Milnut” that consisted of a compound of skim milk and coconut oil. Carolene argued that the FMA was unconstitutional. The district court granted Carolene’s motion to dismiss, and the United States government appealed directly to the United States Supreme Court.