Virginia Ruth Hadlock (defendant) owned several single-family homes that she rented to various individuals. However, after an investigation conducted by the Fair Housing Council of Oregon (FHCO) it was learned that Hadlock had a long-standing practice of refusing to rent to families with children. Hadlock repeatedly told prospective renters that she did not want children in her homes. The FHCO filed a motion with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) alleging that Hadlock engaged in discrimination against families with children. The U.S. (plaintiff) filed suit against Hadlock for violations of the Fair Housing Act, Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, as amended by the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (FHA), and the Oregon Fair Housing Act. The FHCO intervened as a plaintiff in the action (collectively Plaintiffs). Plaintiffs filed a motion for partial summary judgment in federal district court alleging that there were no issues of fact regarding Hadlock’s violation of the FHA, 42 U.S.C. § 3604(a) and (c).