Adham Amin Hassoun, Jose Padilla, and Kifah Wael Jayyousi (defendants) were convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 956(a)(1) of conspiring to commit murder, kidnapping, or maiming outside of the United States while committing overt acts in furtherance of the crime within the United States. The government claimed that the defendants sent aid—including money, recruits, and equipment—overseas for use in violent jihadist conflicts. The government presented evidence that Hassoun used coded language to hide illegal activities undertaken on behalf of jihad, Padilla attended an al Qaeda training camp overseas, and Jayyousi funded recruits for jihad. The defendants claimed that they never intended to commit any of the three objectives—murder, kidnapping, or maiming—of the conspiracy, but only meant to send humanitarian aid overseas. A jury convicted the defendants of conspiracy under § 956(a)(1). The defendants filed motions for acquittal, arguing that the evidence presented at trial did not prove their intent to murder, kidnap, or maim a person overseas while the defendants were in the United States.