Oliver King (defendant), a Canadian citizen, arranged to set up a firearms business in the United States for an American citizen, Amir Zarandi. As a nonimmigrant alien, King was not eligible for a federal firearms license in his own name. King proceeded to obtain a license in Zarandi’s name and began purchasing firearms for himself without Zarandi’s knowledge. In the course of setting up and conducting the firearms business, King entered the United States from Canada 18 times and was stopped for questioning by Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officials 15 of those times. When asked his reasons for entering the United States, King lied and concealed his firearms-related activities. King was convicted by a jury of unlawfully dealing in firearms and making false statements to a government agency in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1001. King appealed.