Santos, as seaman cooperating with U.S. customs agents, arranged with a drug dealer to deliver cocaine to Palestino at a hotel in Puerto Rico. Carrying the cocaine in a bag, Santos arrived at the hotel and asked for Palestino. He was met instead by Zavala Maldonado (defendant), who claimed to be a friend of Palestino and took them into Palestino’s room. Zavala then made two cell phone calls in an apparent attempt to get Palestino to join them. Palestino having failed to appear, Zavala suggested that they temporarily move the cocaine to another room where he had friends, but Santos refused. Finally Santos persuaded Zavala to leave the room with him to get a soda, and Santos left the bag with the drugs in the room. While still in the hotel, Zavala was detained by a customs agent, and subsequently charged and convicted of possession of cocaine with intent to distribute under a federal statute (21 U.S.C.§ 841(a)(1)). Zavala appealed his conviction on the ground that there was insufficient evidence to support a conviction for possession.