Logourl black

United States v. Puerta

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
982 F.2d 1297 (1992)


Puerta (defendant) was born in Spain in 1956, came to the United States on a student visa in 1981, and was admitted as a permanent resident alien in 1984. In 1990 he filed for naturalization. On the application, Puerta responded “none” to questions asking him to list any other names he had used and absences from the United States since the time of his permanent residence. He orally confirmed these answers in an interview with an Immigration Examiner. Puerta was naturalized after that interview. In 1991 he was arrested for attempted bank fraud. A subsequent search found a number of driver’s licenses in various names and a Spanish passport with a different name that had been used to enter the United States in 1986. Every piece of identification was dated prior to the date Puerta filed for naturalization. Puerta was convicted by a trial court of violating 18 U.S.C. §1425(a), which established criminal penalties for anyone who “knowingly procures or attempts to procure, contrary to law, the naturalization of any person.” This appeal followed.

Rule of Law

The rule of law is the black letter law upon which the court rested its decision. To access this section, start your 7-day free trial of Quimbee for Law Students.


The issue section includes the dispositive legal issue in the case phrased as a question. To access this section, start your 7-day free trial of Quimbee for Law Students.

Holding and Reasoning (Fletcher, J)

The holding and reasoning section includes:

  • A “yes” or “no” answer to the question framed in the issue section;
  • A summary of the majority or plurality opinion, using the CREAC method; and
  • The procedural disposition (e.g. reversed and remanded, affirmed, etc.).

To access this section, start your 7-day free trial of Quimbee for Law Students.

Here's why 90,000 law students rely on our case briefs:

  • Reliable - written by law professors and practitioners not other law students.
  • The right length and amount of information - includes the facts, issue, rule of law, holding and reasoning, and any concurrences and dissents.
  • Access in your class - works on your mobile and tablet.
  • 12,195 briefs - keyed to 164 casebooks.
  • Uniform format for every case brief.
  • Written in plain English - not in legalese and not just repeating the court's language.
  • Massive library of related video lessons - and practice questions.
  • Ability to tag case briefs in an outlining tool.
  • Top-notch customer support.
Start Your Free Trial Now