Thirty people including Gregory Schoon, Raymond Kennon, Jr., and Patricia Manning (collectively defendants), gained access to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) office in Tucson, Arizona, where they protested the policy between the United States and El Salvador. The group chanted “keep America’s tax dollars out of El Salvador,” splashed simulated blood on the counters, walls, and floors, and generally obstructed the office’s operation. After repeated warnings to leave or face arrest by a federal police officer, the group was arrested after refusing to comply. At a bench trial, defendants proffered testimony about conditions in El Salvador as motivations for their conduct and argued that their actions were necessary to avoid further bloodshed in that county. The judge did not accept the defendants’ “necessity” defense and convicted them. Defendants appealed.