Frederick Schultz (defendant) was a successful art dealer in New York City. Between 1991 and 1996, Schultz and Jonathan Parry purchased a number of Egyptian antiquities from individuals in Egypt. Schultz and Parry brought the antiquities into America for resale, smuggling the antiques out of Egypt disguised as cheap souvenirs. Schultz was indicted in federal district court for conspiring to receive stolen antiquities through interstate and foreign commerce, in violation of the National Stolen Property Act (NSPA), 18 U.S.C. § 2315. Schultz’s indictment under the NSPA was rooted in his alleged violation of Egypt’s Law 117, which concerned the protection of antiquities. Schultz moved to dismiss the indictment on the ground that he had not violated Law 117. Schultz alleged that (1) Law 117 did not vest true ownership rights over the antiquities to the Egyptian government and (2) even if Law 117 did intend to vest true ownership of all antiquities with the Egyptian government, this form of ownership should not be recognized by the United States. Schultz based his second argument on the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act of 1983 (CPIA), 19 U.S.C. §§ 2601-13. Schultz’s motion was denied, and he was convicted by the trial court. Schultz appealed.