Quimbee logo
DMCA.com Protection Status
From our private database of 16,800+ case briefs...

United States v. Todd

United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
627 F.3d 329 (2009)


The federal government (plaintiff) prosecuted Jerome Eugene Todd (defendant) for violating the Trafficking Victim's Protection Act (TVPA), 18 U.S.C. § 1591(a), by enticing three women to engage in prostitution, "knowing that force, fraud, or coercion . . . will be used" to compel them to do so. The trial evidence established that Todd turned his girlfriend Kelsey Kirschman into a prostitute and controlled her through psychological domination, which he backed up by beating Kirschman whenever she broke his strict rules. Almost two years later, Todd enticed Whitney T. into prostitution. Kirschman trained Whitney T. for her new role, and after moving in with Todd and Kirschman, Whitney T. saw Todd beat Kirschman for disobedience. Next, Todd engaged Whitney E. to work for him as a prostitute, under the day-to-day control of his cousin Trent, who told her he would enforce Todd's rules physically. On one occasion, Todd himself beat Whitney E. Finally, Todd turned Jemelle L. into a prostitute. Todd threatened and shoved Jemelle, and beat Kirschman in Jemelle's presence, leading her to believe she would regret it if she left Todd. The jury found Todd guilty, and he appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, arguing that the government failed to prove Todd knew he would use force or coercion against his victims.

Rule of Law


Holding and Reasoning (Noonan, J.)

What to do next…

  1. Unlock this case brief with a free (no-commitment) trial membership of Quimbee.

    You’ll be in good company: Quimbee is one of the most widely used and trusted sites for law students, serving more than 450,000 law students since 2011. Some law schools—such as Yale, Vanderbilt, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois—even subscribe directly to Quimbee for all their law students. Read our student testimonials.

  2. Learn more about Quimbee’s unique (and proven) approach to achieving great grades at law school.

    Quimbee is a company hell-bent on one thing: helping you get an “A” in every course you take in law school, so you can graduate at the top of your class and get a high-paying law job. We’re not just a study aid for law students; we’re the study aid for law students. Read more about Quimbee.

Here's why 450,000 law students have relied on our case briefs:

  • Written by law professors and practitioners, not other law students. 16,800 briefs, keyed to 224 casebooks. Top-notch customer support.
  • The right amount of information, includes the facts, issues, rule of law, holding and reasoning, and any concurrences and dissents.
  • Access in your classes, works on your mobile and tablet. Massive library of related video lessons and high quality multiple-choice questions.
  • Easy to use, uniform format for every case brief. Written in plain English, not in legalese. Our briefs summarize and simplify; they don’t just repeat the court’s language.

Questions & Answers

Have a question about this case?

Sign up for a free 7-day trial and ask it

Sign up for a FREE 7-day trial