United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
989 F.2d 1015 (9th Cir. 1993)
Wallace Ward (defendant) was charged with attempting to evade income tax and failing to file income taxes. Ward represented himself in the court proceedings. Prior to trial, Ward filed a motion proposing to change the oath that would be sworn by witnesses at his trial. In particular, Ward requested that the phrase “fully integrated Honesty” replace the word “truth.” A magistrate denied Ward’s motion. The district court affirmed the denial. At trial, Ward again sought to use his preferred oath. Ward offered to take both the traditional oath and his alternate oath. The district court did not allow Ward to do so. Ward did not take the stand as a witness or call any other witnesses, and he was convicted of all charges. Ward appealed.
Rule of Law
Holding and Reasoning (Fletcher, J.)
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