Nassar (plaintiff) was a doctor of Middle Eastern descent. Nassar worked for the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (University) at Parkland Memorial Hospital (the hospital) (defendant). Nassar believed Dr. Beth Levine, one of his superiors, was biased against him and discriminated against him on account of his ethnicity. Nassar wanted to continue working at the hospital but not for the University. Nassar resigned from the University and upon doing so wrote to multiple people a scathing letter about Levine and her alleged discrimination. Around the same time, the hospital was prepared to offer Nassar a job independent of University affiliation. Upon receiving the letter from Nassar, Dr. Gregory Fitz, Levine’s supervisor, convinced the hospital to not hire Nassar. Nassar filed suit for retaliation under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The jury returned a verdict in favor of Nassar. The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed. The United States Supreme Court granted certiorari.