Aleksandr Zubkov (plaintiff) was a Russian bobsled athlete. Zubkov was one of 39 Russian athletes who were found by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) (defendant) to have committed anti-doping rule violations at the 2014 Winter Olympics. Investigations found that there was a widespread doping program in place to illegally assist Russian athletes. Specifically, Zubkov was accused of giving clean (untainted by drug use) urine to Russian authorities prior to the Olympics, which was then used to substitute for later, tainted urine samples. Zubkov was also accused of secretly sending images of his doping-control forms to third parties, which enabled insiders to know which of his samples needed to be substituted. Zubkov and the other athletes who were found to be involved in this scheme were permanently banned from competing in the Olympics. The IOC found that Zubkov was guilty of using a prohibited substance, using a prohibited method (urine substitution), tampering with doping control, and covering up a violation. Zubkov sought relief from the Court of Arbitration for Sport.