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Constitutional Law

Federal Interbranch Relationships

Federal Interbranch Relationships

Learn about the doctrines governing relationships between the branches, including Congress’s power to constrain the President, the role of bicameralism and presentment, the President’s veto power and enforcement discretion, the non-delegation doctrine, and the immunities of each branch from litigation.


Perhaps no feature of the Constitution was more important to the founders, or remains as sacrosanct today, as the checks and balances that the Constitution creates among the three branches of the federal government. Many of the most important checks and balances are expressly provided for in the Constitution’s text, but some remain open to debate today.

One of the most famous judicial opinions concerning the separation of powers is Justice Jackson’s concurring opinion in Youngstown Sheet...