United States Supreme Court
427 U.S. 445 (1976)
In 1972, Congress amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to allow individuals to sue state governments for money damages for discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Based on these amendments, Fitzpatrick and several other male state retirees (plaintiffs) sued Bitzer, Chairman of the Connecticut State Retirement Commission, and the State of Connecticut (defendants) for gender-based discrimination in Connecticut’s retirement policies. Fitzpatrick brought suit in district court. The district court granted only injunctive relief on the grounds that granting monetary relief under the Title VII Amendments violated state sovereignty as protected by the Eleventh Amendment. The court of appeals affirmed, and Fitzpatrick filed a petition for certiorari to the United States Supreme Court.
Rule of Law
Holding and Reasoning (Rehnquist, J.)
Concurrence (Brennan, J.)
Concurrence (Stevens, J.)
What to do next…
Unlock this case brief with a free (no-commitment) trial membership of Quimbee.
You’ll be in good company: Quimbee is one of the most widely used and trusted sites for law students, serving more than 97,000 law students since 2011. Some law schools—such as Yale, Vanderbilt, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois—even subscribe directly to Quimbee for all their law students. Read our student testimonials.
Learn more about Quimbee’s unique (and proven) approach to achieving great grades at law school.
Quimbee is a company hell-bent on one thing: helping you get an “A” in every course you take in law school, so you can graduate at the top of your class and get a high-paying law job. We’re not just a study aid for law students; we’re the study aid for law students. Read more about Quimbee.
Here's why 220,000 law students have relied on our case briefs:
- Written by law professors and practitioners, not other law students. 14,100 briefs, keyed to 189 casebooks. Top-notch customer support.
- The right amount of information, includes the facts, issues, rule of law, holding and reasoning, and any concurrences and dissents.
- Access in your classes, works on your mobile and tablet. Massive library of related video lessons and high quality multiple-choice questions.
- Easy to use, uniform format for every case brief. Written in plain English, not in legalese. Our briefs summarize and simplify; they don’t just repeat the court’s language.